Characterisation of Ground-Motion Recording Stations in the Groningen Gas Field
by R. Noorlandt (Deltares), P. Kruiver (Deltares), M. de Kleine (Deltares), M. Karaoulis (Deltares), G. de Lange (Deltares)A. di Matteo (Shell Global Solutions Internantional B.V.)J. von Ketelhodt (Geotomographie GmbH Germany)E.N. Ruigrok (KNMI)B. Edwards (University of Liverpool)A. Rodriguez-Marek (Virginia Tech)J. Bommer (Imperial College London)J. van Elk (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V.)D. Doornhof (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V.)
The seismic hazard and risk analysis for the onshore Groningen gas field requires information about local soil properties, in particular shear-wave velocity (VS).A fieldwork campaignwas conducted at 18 surface accelerograph stations of the monitoring network. The subsurface in the region consists of unconsolidated sediments and is heterogeneous in composition and properties. A range of different methods was applied to acquire in situ VS values to a target depth of at least 30 m. The techniques include seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) with varying source offsets, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) on Rayleigh waves with different processing approaches, microtremor array, cross-hole tomography and suspension P-S logging. The offset SCPT, cross-hole tomography and common midpoint cross-correlation (CMPcc) processing of MASW data all revealed lateral variations on length scales of several to tens of metres in this geological setting. SCPTs resulted in very detailed VS profiles with depth, but represent point neasurements in a heterogeneous environment. The MASW results represent VS information on a larger spatial scale and smooth some of the heterogeneity encountered at the sites. The combination of MASW and SCPT proved to be a powerful and cost-effective approach in determining representative VS profiles at the accelerograph station sites. The measured VS profiles correspond well with the modelled profiles and they significantly enhance the ground motion model derivation. The similarity between the theoretical transfer function from the VS profile and the observed amplification from vertical array stations is also excellent.
Noorlandt, R., P. Kruiver, M. de Kleine, M. Karaoulis, G. de Lange, A. di Matteo, J. von Ketelhodt, E.N. Ruigrok, B. Edwards, A. Rodriguez-Marek, J. Bommer, J. van Elk and D. Doornhof, Characterisation of Ground-Motion Recording Stations in the Groningen Gas Field