Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 – Part 2: Antarctica (1979–2016)
by J.M. van Wessem (IMAU), W.J. van de Berg (IMAU), B.P.Y. Noël (IMAU), E. van Meijgaard (KNMI), L.H. van Ulft (KNMI)M.R. van den Broeke (IMAU) 13 CoAuthors (other)
We evaluate modelled Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) near-surface climate, surface mass balance (SMB) and surface energy balance (SEB) from the updated polar version of the regional atmospheric climate model, RACMO2 (1979–2016). The updated model, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates upper-air relaxation, a revised topography, tuned parameters in the cloud scheme to generate more precipitation towards the AIS interior and modified snow properties reducing drifting snow sublimation and increasing surface snowmelt.
Comparisons of RACMO2 model output with several independent observational data show that the existing biases in AIS temperature, radiative fluxes and SMB components are further reduced with respect to the previous model version. The model-integrated annual average SMB for the ice sheet including ice shelves (minus the Antarctic Peninsula, AP) now amounts to 2229Gty−1, with an interannual variability of 109Gty−1. The largest improvement is found in modelled surface snowmelt, which now compares well with satellite and weather station observations. For the high-resolution ( ∼ 5.5km) AP simulation, results remain comparable to earlier studies.
The updated model provides a new, high-resolution data set of the contemporary near-surface climate and SMB of the AIS; this model version will be used for future climate scenario projections in a forthcoming study.
Wessem, J.M. van, W.J. van de Berg, B.P.Y. Noël, E. van Meijgaard, L.H. van Ulft, M.R. van den Broeke and 13 CoAuthors, Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 – Part 2: Antarctica (1979–2016)