Ground-motion networks in the Groningen field: usability and consistency of surface recordings
by M. Ntinalexis (Independent Engineering Consultant, London), J.J. Bommer (Imperial College London), E. Ruigrok (KNMI), B. Edwards (University of Liverpool), R. Pinho (University of Pavia)B. Dost (KNMI)A.A. Correia (LNEC Lisbon)J. Uilenreef (NAM)P.J. Stafford (Imperial College London)J. Van Elk (NAM)
Several strong-motion networks have been installed in the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands to record ground motions associated with induced earthquakes. There are now more than 450 permanent surface accelerographs plus a mobile array of 450 instruments, which, in addition to many instrumented boreholes, yield a wealth of data. The database of recordings has been of fundamental importance to the development of ground-motion models that form a key element of the seismic hazard and risk estimations for the field. In order to maximise the benefit that can be derived from these recordings, this study evaluates the usability of the recordings from the different networks, in general terms and specifically with regards to the frequency ranges with acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. The study also explores the consistency among the recordings from the different networks, highlighting in particular how a configuration error was identified and resolved. The largest accelerograph network consists of instruments housed in buildings around the field, frequently installed on the lower parts of walls rather than on the floor. A series of experiments were conducted, using additional instruments installed adjacent to these buildings and replicating the installation configuration in full-scale shake table tests, to identify the degree to which structural response contaminated the recordings. The general finding of these efforts was that for PGV and oscillator periods above 0.1 s, the response spectral ordinates from these recordings can be used with confidence.
Ntinalexis, M., J.J. Bommer, E. Ruigrok, B. Edwards, R. Pinho, B. Dost, A.A. Correia, J. Uilenreef, P.J. Stafford and J. Van Elk, Ground-motion networks in the Groningen field: usability and consistency of surface recordings